|An incredible burst of energy and particles|
"If humans go to Mars and have a similar positioning system there, knowing about ionosphere effects will be important," Withers said.
While solar flare radiation is typically not dangerous to humans if they are are at Earth's surface or have proper protection, the flares can be followed by streams of high-speed particles called protons. These "proton storms" are potentially lethal to astronauts and have been known to reach Earth in as little as 15 minutes.
Solar flares can also fuel giant clouds of electrified gas, called coronal mass ejections, which can billow into the solar system and overtake Earth in a matter of hours or days.
|Mars rover Curiosity had to be put on standby due to a mid strength Solar flare|
These two space phenomena are harder to shield against and can be dangerous to astronauts. On Jan. 20, 2005, the International Space Station was struck by a proton storm so powerful that its crew had to take shelter in the bulkier Russian side of the station, in a section designed with such storms in mind.
|Solar flares and radiation are a key concern for interplanetary travel and settlement|
Unlike Earth, which has a strong magnetic field and a dense atmosphere to deflect most solar flare radiation, Mars is relatively naked to space weather.
For more technical reading and info:http://www.mars-one.com/faq/health-and-ethics/how-much-radiation-will-the-settlers-be-exposed-to